Surgery (Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery, Stomach Surgery, and Otolaryngology)
Surgery is a primary treatment for esophageal cancer. Surgical removal is recommended when cancer without remote metastasis is removable by surgery, and the cancer patient has good general conditions. Surgical removal of the esophageal cancer is divided into three phases: first, resection of the esophagus; second, removing lymph nodes around the esophagus and stomach; and third, reconstructing the esophagus. In other words, the esophagus with carcinoma will be removed first, and then reconstruction of the esophagus will be held to allow eating by mouth. Usually, the reconstruction of the esophagus is made using the stomach, but if the stomach is not available, colon, small intestine, etc. are used for reconstruction. Through the increase of usage in gastroesophageal endoscopy, very initial stage cancer in the mucous membrane of a patient is found. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which uses endoscopy to remove the lesion in the mucous membrane without surgical intervention, is being also held.